Rupee at All-Time Low Against US Dollar: Factors that Affect Dollar-Rupee Relation

Discover the intricate dynamics behind the recent all-time low of the Indian rupee against the US dollar, exploring factors like US Treasury yields, the Dollar Index, and global risk aversion.

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The Indian rupee (INR) recently hit an all-time low against the US dollar, closing at 83.14 on August 17, 2023, weighed down by a negative trend in domestic equities and foreign fund outflows. This significant depreciation is the result of various complex factors, highlighting the intricate relationship between the US dollar and the Indian rupee.

Factors Behind Rupee's Depreciation

1. US Treasury Yields Surge: Rising US Treasury yields, driven by inflation concerns and the possibility of further rate hikes, have attracted capital inflows into dollar-denominated assets, dampening demand for currencies from emerging markets such as the Indian rupee.

2. Strong US Dollar Index: The strength of the US dollar index against a basket of foreign currencies, boosted by positive US economic data and sustained high-interest rate expectations, added to the appeal of the US dollar, leading to the depreciation of the rupee.

3. Weakening Chinese Yuan: The decline of the Chinese yuan due to economic concerns, including a growing debt crisis and a slow economic recovery, is affecting India's export competitiveness and trade balance. This ultimately affects the value of the rupee.

4. Global Risk-Averse Environment: In times of uncertainty, investors tend to take refuge in safe-haven assets like the US dollar, which contributes to the rupee's depreciation in the risk-averse global economy.

Reserve Bank of India's Intervention

The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) intervened to mitigate the rupee's decline by intervening in the foreign exchange market. The RBI can influence the value of the rupee by buying or selling its own currency. For example, when the rupee weakens, the RBI can buy its own currency to increase in value.

Key Considerations for Investors

- The US Dollar Index and US Treasury yields are pivotal in the rupee's movement.

- US interest rate hikes influence RBI's rate decisions and impact foreign investments.

- Inflation pressures erode the rupee's purchasing power and international attractiveness.

- Oil prices, current account deficits, and RBI's foreign currency reserves impact the rupee.

- Foreign institutional investments (FIIs) influence the rupee's movement and market dynamics.


We anticipate the rupee to remain under pressure for some more time due to global market uncertainties and the overall resilience of the dollar. Rising crude oil prices might further impact the Rupee negatively. Nonetheless, any actions taken by the Reserve Bank of India could provide support to the Rupee at its weaker points.

The complex interplay of global economic factors, geopolitical events, and national policies shapes the complex relationship between the Indian Rupee and the US Dollar. Understanding these factors is crucial for investors to make informed decisions in a dynamic currency market.  

*Please note that this information is for educational purposes only and should not be considered financial advice. Investments are subject to risks, and it's advisable to consult financial experts before making investment decisions.

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